Understanding the Indian Education System
It is nice to know that India comes at the second numbering the world, when the topic in discussion is ‘higher education network’. In India, the universities are created by the Central or State Governments by means of legislation, whereas the colleges are set up by either the state governments or by private bodies. All the colleges are affiliated to one or the other university.
Different types of universities:
Central or State universities— Central universities are funded directly by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, whereas those on state level are funded by various state governments.
Deemed universities— They enjoy similar academic status and all the privileges of a traditional university. Examples are the Deccan College of Post Graduate and Research Institute, Pune; Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai; Indian Institute of Sciences, Bangalore; etc
Institutions of National Importance— These are university-level institutions funded by the Central Government and established or designated by Acts of Parliament. The institutes falling under this category include the Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management and the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, etc. Majority of the universities are ‘affiliating universities’ and recommend to the affiliated colleges, the admission standards and modules of study, hold exams and award degrees. University departments teach postgraduate education and guide and promote research in a variety of specialties. Undergraduate and, to some extent, postgraduate education is imparted by the colleges affiliated to a particular university.
Classification of Colleges:- Indian colleges can be broadly classified into four categories. The basis of this categorization is: The kind of courses offered by them (professional/ vocational)Their ownership status( Private/ Government) Their relationship with the university (affiliated/university owned)
University colleges: The colleges, which are managed by the university itself and are usually situated in the campus of the university.
Government colleges: The colleges, which are managed by the state governments. Such colleges are few, in fact only about 15-20% of the total colleges. The examination scenario, courses, awarding the degrees, all the aspects are handled by the universities to which these colleges are affiliated.
Professional colleges: These colleges are mostly in the fields of medicine, engineering and management. The number of such colleges for other disciplines is very few. Such colleges are managed and sponsored either by government or by private enterprises.
Privately managed colleges: More than 70 percent of the colleges are found by the privately owned societies or trusts. But these colleges also have to abide the rules of the university they are affiliated to. The State Government also plays a role in funding them.